A half step is the distance between one key on the keyboard and the very next key above or below it.
A whole step is two half steps
Lowers a pitch a half step
Raises a pitch a half step
All white keys on the keyboard. It also cancels out a flat or a sharp.
A scale that is built in half steps ascending and descending. Use the sharp version of a note when ascending the scale. Use the flat version a note when descending the scale.
An 8 note scale that uses the formula WWHWWWH. W = whole step, H= step step.
An 8 note scale that uses the formula WHWWHWW
Accidentals placed next to a clef. The accidentals tell you which notes to alter throughout the piece without the use of extra accidentals.
Circle of 4th/5th
See Circle of 4th/5ths.