Skip to main content


Half/Whole Step

A half step is the distance between one key on the keyboard and the very next key above or below it.

A whole step is two half steps


Lowers a pitch a half step


Raises a pitch a half step


All white keys on the keyboard. It also cancels out a flat or a sharp.

Chromatic Scale

A scale that is built in half steps ascending and descending. Use the sharp version of a note when ascending the scale. Use the flat version a note when descending the scale.

Major Scale

An 8 note scale that uses the formula WWHWWWH. W = whole step, H= step step.

Minor Scale

An 8 note scale that uses the formula WHWWHWW

Key Signatures

Accidentals placed next to a clef. The accidentals tell you which notes to alter throughout the piece without the use of extra accidentals.

Circle of 4th/5th

See Circle of 4th/5ths.